Pharmacy Benefit Managers, or PBMs, are central cogs in the healthcare machinery. Yet, their role, functions, and influence on healthcare costs often remain shrouded in mystery. Acting as vital intermediaries, PBMs navigate the complexities between patients, health plans, and pharmacies. Given the relentless rise in drug prices, a thorough comprehension of PBMs is indispensable for self-funded employers, brokers, TPAs, and consultants.
The Central Role of PBMs
At its core, the function of a PBM is intermediary. PBMs are responsible for managing drug formularies — the list of drugs covered by insurance — and meticulously processing drug claims for health plan members. Their expansive networks and formidable bargaining power place them in an advantageous position to obtain significant discounts, ensuring that beneficiaries have access to vital medications without exorbitant prices.
Different Approaches to Revenue Generation
The way in which a PBM chooses to generate its revenue profoundly impacts its capability to control costs. Here’s a more in-depth examination of these strategies:
1. Spread Pricing
This method sees some PBMs marking up the difference between the amount reimbursed to pharmacies for a prescription and what is charged to their client. Here’s a breakdown of spread pricing:
- Basic Concept: The “spread” in spread pricing refers to the difference between what the PBM charges the insurer (or payer) for a drug and what the PBM pays the pharmacy for that same drug. The PBM keeps this difference as revenue.
- Pricing Layers:
- Reimbursement to Pharmacies: When a patient fills a prescription at a pharmacy, the PBM pays the pharmacy a certain amount for the medication. This amount can be based on various factors.
- Charges to Payers: Separately, the PBM bills the insurer (or employer or government program) for the same prescription. However, this amount can be different from what it paid the pharmacy.
Let’s say a patient fills a prescription for Drug X at their local pharmacy.
The PBM pays the pharmacy $50 for Drug X.
The PBM then charges the insurer $75 for Drug X.
The difference, $25, is the “spread” that the PBM retains.
- Transparency: Critics of spread pricing argue that it lacks transparency. Payers might not be aware of the exact amounts PBMs are paying pharmacies, so they don’t necessarily know the size of the spread or if they’re being charged a fair price.
- Incentives: Some worry that spread pricing creates perverse incentives for PBMs to prefer drugs with larger spreads rather than those that are most cost-effective or beneficial for patients.
- Impact on Pharmacies: Independent and smaller pharmacies argue that the reimbursement rates they receive from PBMs can sometimes be below their cost, making it challenging for them to sustain their businesses.
2. Rebate Retention
Another approach sees PBMs capitalizing on rebate retention. Although rebates have the potential to significantly lower drug costs, the benefits can be diluted if a PBM chooses to retain a substantial part of these rebates. In such scenarios, the end beneficiaries, namely the employers and members, might miss out on considerable cost reductions.
3. Administrative Fees
Certain PBMs predominantly draw their revenue from administrative fees as opposed to spread or rebates. Such a model can promote transparency, granting clients a lucid view of where their money goes and how savings are achieved.
4. Transparent or Pass-Through Model
Gaining momentum among discerning clients, this model is a beacon of transparency. Here, all savings, be it discounts or rebates, are directly passed on to the clients. The PBM’s revenue is then derived through administrative and service fees, championing an ethos of accountability and crystal-clear clarity. Here’s a breakdown of the Pass-Through Model for PBMs in revenue generation:
- Transparency: In the pass-through model, there’s a high level of transparency in the pricing of drugs. PBMs disclose the reimbursement to the pharmacies and charge the plan sponsors (like employers or insurance companies) only the reimbursable amount.
- Revenue Generation: Instead of making money from the spread between what they charge the plan and what they pay pharmacies (as in a traditional spread pricing model), in the pass-through model, PBMs make money through administrative fees and service charges.
- Rebates: Often, drug manufacturers provide rebates for certain medications, especially brand-name drugs. In the pass-through model, these rebates are typically passed directly to the plan sponsors, rather than being retained (fully or partially) by the PBM as an additional source of revenue. This provides clients with more visibility and often leads to lower net drug costs.
- Dispensing Fees: PBMs in this model will often charge a fixed dispensing fee for every prescription filled. This is different from the traditional model where PBMs might pay pharmacies a lower dispensing fee and then charge the plan a higher fee, keeping the difference (or “spread”).
- Other Services: PBMs might offer additional clinical or administrative services to plan sponsors for added fees. This includes services like medication therapy management, drug utilization reviews, and formulary management, among others.
Modern PBMs Role in Transforming Healthcare
The upward trajectory of drug prices underscores the need for PBMs that unreservedly champion transparency and authentic cost containment. The traditional PBM model has been the subject of debate and scrutiny for years due to concerns over lack of transparency and potential conflicts of interest.
However, in recent years, some modern PBMs have made significant changes by emphasizing transparency and authentic cost containment. Here’s how these modern PBMs are transforming healthcare:
- Transparent Pricing and Rebates: Traditionally, PBMs would negotiate rebates with drug manufacturers, but there was little transparency around how much of these rebates were passed on to the clients or the patients. Modern PBMs commit to fully disclosing and passing on all manufacturer rebates to clients, ensuring that the end user receives the benefits of these negotiations.
- Fee-for-service Model: Instead of making money off of the spread between what an insurer pays for a drug and what a PBM charges, transparent PBMs are adopting a fee-for-service model. This model aligns the interests of the PBM with that of their clients, promoting cost savings and efficiency.
- Clinical Management and Care: Modern PBMs emphasize value-based care, ensuring that patients receive the most clinically appropriate and cost-effective drugs. They offer advanced medication therapy management, prior authorization, and step therapy programs that ensure medications are used appropriately.
- Real-time Benefit Tools: With technological advancements, modern PBMs provide real-time benefit tools to physicians at the point of prescribing. This allows doctors to see the cost of medications, available alternatives, and any prior authorization requirements, leading to more informed and cost-effective prescribing.
- Data Analytics: Using advanced data analytics, modern PBMs can track patient medication adherence, predict which patients are at risk of not following their regimens, and intervene to improve outcomes. This not only leads to better patient outcomes but also reduces healthcare costs associated with non-adherence.
- Generic and Biosimilar Promotion: Modern PBMs promote the use of generic and biosimilar drugs, which can significantly reduce costs. They engage in educational efforts with both providers and patients to ensure that safe and effective alternatives are used whenever possible.
- Improved Pharmacy Networks: By working closely with pharmacies, modern PBMs can establish networks that prioritize quality and cost-effective care. This can involve working with pharmacies that offer better pricing or higher-quality care.
- Consumer Engagement Tools: Empowering patients with knowledge about their medications, potential side effects, cheaper alternatives, and more, can lead to better medication adherence and improved health outcomes.
MaxCare: Leading with Transparency and Innovation
In this diverse landscape of PBM models, MaxCare carves a niche for itself, deeply anchored in cost clarity and innovation. Our tenets of transparency, accountability, and unmatched customer service translate into more than just a transactional liaison.
With MaxCare, employers aren’t just handed a service; they’re embarking on a partnership. Through a comprehensive analysis of an employer’s existing prescription benefit plan, MaxCare discerns and illuminates areas primed for significant savings. This ensures that clients are not mere recipients, but active participants in judiciously managing their pharmacy benefits.
Where some PBMs might flaunt their “cost containment strategies,” closer scrutiny may reveal that these strategies might inadvertently fuel a surge in overall healthcare expenses. In sharp contrast, MaxCare directs its energies towards pioneering proactive measures and bespoke solutions genuinely designed to curtail and manage prescription costs.
In this landscape, MaxCare emerges as a beacon. Our ethos transcends the traditional PBM framework; we position ourselves as steadfast allies, aiding our partners in adeptly navigating the intricate maze of pharmacy benefits. Our unwavering commitment to transparency, paired with our consultative modus operandi, ensures that our clients are equipped, informed, and empowered to deftly manage and optimize their pharmacy benefit expenditure.